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# 你所不知道或不熟悉的积分法（二）：对称代换

$\int\frac{x^2-1}{x^4+1}dx$

$u=x^{a}\pm\frac{1}{x^a}$ 同时，函数又些类似于 $x^{a-1}\mp\frac{1}{x^{a+1}}$ 的项。这时候，进行对称代换会比较容易。我们来看一些例子。

\begin{align*}\int\frac{x^5-x}{x^8+1}dx&=\int\frac{x-\frac{1}{x^3}}{x^4+\frac{1}{x^4}}dx\\&=\int\frac{x-\frac{1}{x^3}}{x^4+\frac{1}{x^4}+2-2}dx\\&=\int\frac{x-\frac{1}{x^3}}{\left(x^2+\frac{1}{x^2}\right)^2-2}dx\end{align*}

\begin{align*}\int\frac{x^5-x}{x^8+1}dx&=\int\frac{x-\frac{1}{x^3}}{\left(x^2+\frac{1}{x^2}\right)^2-2}dx=\frac{1}{2}\int\frac{du}{u^2-2}\\ &=\int\frac{du}{(u-\sqrt2)(u+\sqrt2)}dx\end{align*}

$\frac{1}{2}\int\frac{du}{(u-\sqrt2)(u+\sqrt2)}dx=\frac{1}{4\sqrt2}\int\left(\frac{1}{u-\sqrt2}-\frac{1}{u+\sqrt2}\right)dx=\frac{1}{4\sqrt2}\ln\left|\frac{u-\sqrt2}{u+\sqrt2}\right|+C$

\begin{align*}\int\frac{x^2-1}{(x^2+1)\sqrt{x^4+1}}dx&=\int\frac{x^2-1}{x(x^2+1)\sqrt{x^2+\frac{1}{x^2}}}dx\\&=\int\frac{1-\frac{1}{x^2}}{\left(x+\frac{1}{x}\right)\sqrt{x^2+\frac{1}{x^2}}}dx\\ &=\int\frac{1-\frac{1}{x^2}}{\left(x+\frac{1}{x}\right)\sqrt{(x+\frac{1}{x})^2-2}}dx\end{align*}

$\int\frac{x^2-1}{(x^2+1)\sqrt{x^4+1}}dx=\int\frac{1-\frac{1}{x^2}}{\left(x+\frac{1}{x}\right)\sqrt{(x+\frac{1}{x})^2-2}}dx=\int\frac{du}{u\sqrt{u^2-2}}$

\begin{align*}\int\frac{x^2-1}{(x^2+1)\sqrt{x^4+1}}dx&=\frac{t}{\sqrt{2}}+C\\&=\frac{1}{\sqrt2}\arccos \frac{\sqrt{2}}{u}+C\\&=\frac{1}{\sqrt2}\arccos \frac{\sqrt{2}}{x+\frac{1}{x}}+C\\&=\frac{1}{\sqrt2}\arccos \frac{\sqrt{2}x}{x^2+1}+C\end{align*}

1，求积分 $\int\frac{x^2-1}{x^4+x^2+1}dx$

2，求积分 $\int\frac{x^4+1}{x^2\sqrt{x^4-1}}dx$

3，求积分 $\int\frac{x^2+1}{x^4+3x^3+3x^2-x+1}dx$

4，求积分 $\int\frac{x^2}{x^4+1}dx$